By Marvin V. Zelkowitz
This can be quantity seventy seven of Advances in pcs. on the grounds that 1960, annual volumes are produced containing chapters by way of many of the major specialists within the box of desktops at the present time. for fifty years those volumes supply principles and advancements which are altering our society. This quantity offers 8 diversified themes overlaying many various facets of desktop technology. quite a lot of topics are coated from insights into the various methods members can have interaction with digital units to how universal legislation is adapting to and impacting on the net.
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PHOTO FAKERY AND FORENSICS 43 where the quantization q depends on the spatial frequency and channel. Larger quantization values q yield better compression at the cost of image degradation. Quantization values are typically larger in the chrominance channels, and in the higher spatial frequencies, roughly modeling the sensitivity of the human visual system. Consider now a set of coefficients c1 quantized by an amount q1 , which are subsequently quantized a second time by an amount q2 to yield coefficients c2 .
Shown in the bottom portion of Fig. 21 are the difference images between the tampered image saved at JPEG qualities 60–100 in steps of 2. 84. In both examples, the JPEG ghosts of the inserted car and dolphin are visually salient and statistically distinct from the rest of the image. The advantage of this approach is that it is effective on low-quality images and can detect relatively small regions that have been altered. The disadvantage of this approach is that it is only effective when the tampered region is of lower quality than the image into which it was inserted.
The errors for all pairs for both models (3D and 2D) are shown in Fig. 9. In both plots, the 52 image pairs from the same location are plotted first (‘‘þ’’), sorted by error. The 2226 pairs from different locations are plotted next (‘‘ ’’). Note that the axes are scaled logarithmically. 0023. 0025. 0025. These image pairs correspond to lighting environments that are indistinguishable based on the five-coefficient model. Á 28 H. FARID 100 Error 10−1 10−2 10−3 10−4 1 100 Image pair 1000 1 100 Image pair 1000 100 Error 10−1 10−2 10−3 10−4 FIG.
Advances in Computers, Vol. 77 by Marvin V. Zelkowitz